In the early 21st century there were about 30 million speakers of Punjabi in India. Punjabi is a descendant of the Saurasheni Prakrit which was spoken as the main language in medieval Northern India. Punjabi developed a written literature later than most of the other regional languages of the Indian subcontinent, and some writings from its early centuries, such as those of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak (1469–1539), are in Old Hindi rather than true Punjabi. All Rights Reserved. The early Punjabi literature has had a very rich oral tradition and was principally spiritual in nature.Muslim Sufi, Sikh and Hindu writers composed many works in Punjabi between 1600 and 1850. Other languages were cultivated for most kinds of writing, including Persian under the Mughal Empire, then Urdu during the British period and, in Pakistan, continuing to the present day. Suggested Read: Punjab – Culture, and Tradition. A successor of Sauraseni Prakrit, the chief language of medieval northern India, Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 11th century from the Sauraseni Apabhramsa. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It is the most widely spoken native language in Pakistan. Punjab - Punjab - History: The foundations of the present Punjab were laid by Banda Singh Bahadur, a hermit who became a military leader and, with his fighting band of Sikhs, temporarily liberated the eastern part of the province from Mughal rule in 1709–10. During these middle ages, the Hindu and Sikh writers wrote in the Punjabi language. The partition of the subcontinent in 1947 along religious lines was marked by particular violence in Punjab, where ethnic cleansing and exchange of populations resulted in the expulsion of most Punjabi-speaking Muslims from India and of Sikhs and Hindus from Pakistan. Punjabis have been known to have inhabited the Indus Valley as far back as 2500 BC. Emeritus Professor of Modern Languages of South Asia, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. The name Gurmukhi means “from the mouth of the Guru,” Shahmukhi translates to “from King’s mouth” and Devanagri implies “The container of divine light.”. There are four main types of particles – emphatic, negative, honorific, and vocative. The nouns also can be singular or plural. Eastern Punjabi remained independently as what is Punjabi today. It is the youngest religion in major religions. These five rivers are known as Sutlej, Beas, Jhelum, Ravi & Chenab which are the tributaries of the Indus River. To write Punjabi, one can use three alphabets – namely, Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi, and Devanagri to a lesser extent. Punjabi is an ancient language, but like Punjabi, started its literary career pretty late. The gender value is purely grammatical for inanimate objects. The Gurmukhi alphabet developed from the Landa alphabet and was standardized during the 16th century by Guru Angad Dev Ji, the second Sikh guru. Punjabi is the native language of about 130 million people, and is the 10th most spoken language in the world. The word ‘Punj’ means Five and ab mean water. Punjab in its present state came into existence on November 1, 1966, when most of its predominantly Hindi-speaking areas were separated to form the new state of Haryana. Punjabi can be categorized as Western Punjabi and Eastern Punjabi. There are the usual conflicting claims to the great writers of the past, but all devotees of the Punjabi literary tradition, in both India and Pakistan, find the supreme expression of their shared cultural identity in the rich expression of the Muslim poet Waris (or Varis) Shah’s great romance Hir (1766; also spelled Heer). Literature in the Punjabi language is published in India and Pakistan, and in many countries of Europe, North America, and Southeast Asia wherever Punjabi diaspora have settled in large numbers. Download free copy of ‘Japji Sahib’ in Punjabi and English Before the partition of India in 1947, Punjab was a large state in British … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. These came to be counted later almost as separate languages. As Punjabi is the official language of Punjab, it gets the name from the … The Punjabi language has homonyms. Demography and Geography of Punjabi Language “Punjab” is a combination of two Persian words, “Punj” meaning five and “ab” (Pronounced Aab) meaning water. So although the linguistic frontier is very well defined to the…, …Indus Valley, for example, and Punjabi in the Punjab are languages rich in an emotional poetry that uses popular metres and forms. Punjabi nouns have an assigned gender and they can be either masculine or feminine though some nouns can be used for both the genders due to dialectical variations. Punjabi language, Punjabi also spelled Panjabi, one of the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. RitiRiwaz.com is your one stop guide to the Indian Culture and Traditions. The Punjabi language has emerged as an independent language in the 12th century. Punjab means PUNJ-AAB i.e. That script is a member of the Indic family of scripts, written from left to right, but in its organization it differs significantly from the Devanagari used to write Hindi. Punjabi literature, body of writing in the Punjabi language. It is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. Punjabi is the language of Punjab, the land of the five rivers. They link the noun and the pronoun to other parts of the sentence. 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