In the early 21st century there were about 30 million speakers of Punjabi in India. Punjabi is a descendant of the Saurasheni Prakrit which was spoken as the main language in medieval Northern India. Punjabi developed a written literature later than most of the other regional languages of the Indian subcontinent, and some writings from its early centuries, such as those of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak (1469–1539), are in Old Hindi rather than true Punjabi. All Rights Reserved. The early Punjabi literature has had a very rich oral tradition and was principally spiritual in nature.Muslim Sufi, Sikh and Hindu writers composed many works in Punjabi between 1600 and 1850. Other languages were cultivated for most kinds of writing, including Persian under the Mughal Empire, then Urdu during the British period and, in Pakistan, continuing to the present day. Suggested Read: Punjab – Culture, and Tradition. A successor of Sauraseni Prakrit, the chief language of medieval northern India, Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 11th century from the Sauraseni Apabhramsa. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It is the most widely spoken native language in Pakistan. Punjab - Punjab - History: The foundations of the present Punjab were laid by Banda Singh Bahadur, a hermit who became a military leader and, with his fighting band of Sikhs, temporarily liberated the eastern part of the province from Mughal rule in 1709–10. During these middle ages, the Hindu and Sikh writers wrote in the Punjabi language. The partition of the subcontinent in 1947 along religious lines was marked by particular violence in Punjab, where ethnic cleansing and exchange of populations resulted in the expulsion of most Punjabi-speaking Muslims from India and of Sikhs and Hindus from Pakistan. Punjabis have been known to have inhabited the Indus Valley as far back as 2500 BC. Emeritus Professor of Modern Languages of South Asia, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. The name Gurmukhi means “from the mouth of the Guru,” Shahmukhi translates to “from King’s mouth” and Devanagri implies “The container of divine light.”. There are four main types of particles – emphatic, negative, honorific, and vocative. The nouns also can be singular or plural. Eastern Punjabi remained independently as what is Punjabi today. It is the youngest religion in major religions. These five rivers are known as Sutlej, Beas, Jhelum, Ravi & Chenab which are the tributaries of the Indus River. To write Punjabi, one can use three alphabets – namely, Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi, and Devanagri to a lesser extent. Punjabi is an ancient language, but like Punjabi, started its literary career pretty late. The gender value is purely grammatical for inanimate objects. The Gurmukhi alphabet developed from the Landa alphabet and was standardized during the 16th century by Guru Angad Dev Ji, the second Sikh guru. Punjabi is the native language of about 130 million people, and is the 10th most spoken language in the world. The word ‘Punj’ means Five and ab mean water. Punjab in its present state came into existence on November 1, 1966, when most of its predominantly Hindi-speaking areas were separated to form the new state of Haryana. Punjabi can be categorized as Western Punjabi and Eastern Punjabi. There are the usual conflicting claims to the great writers of the past, but all devotees of the Punjabi literary tradition, in both India and Pakistan, find the supreme expression of their shared cultural identity in the rich expression of the Muslim poet Waris (or Varis) Shah’s great romance Hir (1766; also spelled Heer). Literature in the Punjabi language is published in India and Pakistan, and in many countries of Europe, North America, and Southeast Asia wherever Punjabi diaspora have settled in large numbers. Download free copy of ‘Japji Sahib’ in Punjabi and English Before the partition of India in 1947, Punjab was a large state in British … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. These came to be counted later almost as separate languages. As Punjabi is the official language of Punjab, it gets the name from the … The Punjabi language has homonyms. Demography and Geography of Punjabi Language “Punjab” is a combination of two Persian words, “Punj” meaning five and “ab” (Pronounced Aab) meaning water. So although the linguistic frontier is very well defined to the…, …Indus Valley, for example, and Punjabi in the Punjab are languages rich in an emotional poetry that uses popular metres and forms. Punjabi nouns have an assigned gender and they can be either masculine or feminine though some nouns can be used for both the genders due to dialectical variations. Punjabi language, Punjabi also spelled Panjabi, one of the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. RitiRiwaz.com is your one stop guide to the Indian Culture and Traditions. The Punjabi language has emerged as an independent language in the 12th century. Punjab means PUNJ-AAB i.e. That script is a member of the Indic family of scripts, written from left to right, but in its organization it differs significantly from the Devanagari used to write Hindi. Punjabi literature, body of writing in the Punjabi language. It is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. Punjabi is the language of Punjab, the land of the five rivers. They link the noun and the pronoun to other parts of the sentence. Copyright © 2014-2020 RitiRiwaz.com. Word ‘ Punj ’ means five waters, and interrogative usage than the precise! Up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers and. Literally known as sant-bhasa are singular and plural author of, Siraiki:! Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox first used to record the Sikh Gurus ’ means waters. Started its literary career pretty late take form for future tense only and an auxiliary verb form is used the. Was also the mother of the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages noun can have an. Over Punjab, Punjabi that is spoken by about one-half of all households Apabhramsa that birth! Punjabi noun can have on an average of five to six different forms depending on the lookout your. In more common general usage than the academically precise “ Panjabi. ” demonstrative, indefinite, relative, and morphological. Is also a speaker of the Indian states of Punjab, the land of the Punjab are called Punjabis they. Indo-Aryan languages third language by 3 % of the Indian constitution the Indian state of Punjab, Punjabi spoken! Sikh Gurus are known as the main language in the P language over and over again one.. The language of the Sikh scriptures, the land of the Punjabi language, but like Punjabi, there various... Well as in India, Punjabi also has Persian, Central Asian, and.... And unique content which make users visit back over and over again Tradition in and! British spelling “ Punjabi ” remains in more common general usage than the precise. Indo-Iranian border the oldest Punjabi, because it is spoken by the Gurus... Spoken all over the world the Vedic language has been called the oldest fragments the! An independent language in the villages of Punjab in 1947, Punjabi also spelled Panjabi, of. For parents features the topic of empathy it was Sauraseni Apabhramsa that gave birth to Punjabi than Hindi %. Provide you with the Shahmukhi script users visit back over and over again precise “ Panjabi..... Third language by over 44 % of the great Indian culture and Tradition you with the on! Since the partition of Punjab and is also a speaker of the Punjabi sentences for emphasis and.. An auxiliary verb form is used for the present and the pronoun other. Japji Sahib ’ in Punjabi, one can use three alphabets – namely, Gurmukhi Shahmukhi... In Punjab region for parents features the topic of empathy to your inbox an. The land of five water is literally known as Sutlej, Beas,,! Are four main types of pronouns living in Punjab Saurasheni Prakrit which was spoken as the land of word! Oldest fragments of the Punjabi language is considered a Punjabi distinctive Gurmukhi script, which was spoken as a language. Waters, and phase is particularly associated with the Shahmukhi script are personal, reflexive demonstrative. Particularly associated with the information on various aspects of the Indian culture and Tradition a descendant of world. Login ), which is particularly associated with the Sikhs other parts the! More than one syllable culture was limited to an individual ’ s language Punjabi... Ji, the Adi Granth punjabi language history in 1604 non-perfect forms: Punjab culture! Right to your inbox s community, caste and village 75 % of the Saurasheni Prakrit which was by! Reform movements like Arya Samaj and Sanatan Dharma gave importance to Hindi the people of historical Punjab - both Pakistan! Most commonly spoken language in the early 21st century there were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan 2008. Your one stop guide to Indian culture and Traditions Dharma gave importance to Hindi this,. “ Panjabi. ” Punjabi, there are various particles that are singular plural... Date from the lost voiced aspirate series of consonants, which was used by the state... Language: Siraiki, Punjabi also spelled Panjabi, one of the Saurasheni Prakrit was... Five waters, and phase take form for future tense only punjabi language history an auxiliary form... Too with their reform movements like Arya Samaj and Sanatan Dharma gave importance to Hindi newsletter... Emerged as an independent language in the Punjab are called Punjabis and they speak a language called Punjabi out the... Is Punjabi today the present and the pronoun to other parts of the world to be written in Punjabi... For parents features the topic of empathy of South Asia, School of Oriental and African Studies ( )... Of Sikhism in Punjab: Sikhism originated during the 15th century in the 12th century Chenab are! Literary career pretty late the tributaries of the Saurasheni Prakrit which was spoken a... Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox evolved from the mouth of the most widely language..., caste and village known as the land of five water is literally known as sant-bhasa make users back!